Backfill » Earth or other material replaced in the space around a building wall that was removed during construction.
Beam» The principal horizontal wood or steel members of a building (also called girders).
Cantilever » A projecting beam or joist supported only at one end, used to support an extension of a structure.
Corner Bead » A strip of galvanized iron for protecting the corners of plastered walls.
Dormer » A projecting frame or minor gable in a pitched roof.
Drip Edge» L-shaped weather-resistant metal that is installed at exposed roof edges (eaves) to protect the roof's wooden parts from water damage.
Fascia » A decorative flat board or band used to cover joints between the wall and the eaves.
Felt Paper » A building paper infused with asphalt used on exterior walls and roofs that insulates against heat, cold and moisture.
Fill Insulation » Loose, granulated material which is applied by hand or blown into wall spaces mechanically that reduces the transfer of heat.
Flashing » Non-corrosive metal used for waterproofing around angles or junctions in roofs and exterior walls.
Footing » An enlarged concrete base on which a foundation or column sits.
Foundation » The lower support or base, typically below ground level, on which the structure is built.
Gable » The triangular part of the end of a structure from cornice or eaves to ridge.
Grade » The level of the ground around a building.
Headers » The horizontal beam or over a door or window that provides support for the opening; a beam used to support free ends of floor joists, studs or rafters.
Hip » The external intersection of two slopes of a roof.
Ledger » The horizontal piece of wood attached to a beam to support joists.
Moisture Barrier » Material used to keep dampness from passing into walls or floors, usually treated paper or plastic.
Mullion » The thin framing that divides the lights in a window or panes in a door.
Pitch » The angle or slope of a roof.
Rafter » One of a series of structural roof members used to support roof loads.
Reinforced Concrete » Concrete fortified with wire or metal bars.
Riser » The vertical piece of a stair step running from tread to tread.
Slab » A thick, often reinforced-concrete floor laid in a single, unjointed piece on the interior of surrounding foundation walls (monolithic slabs join the pouring of foundation walls and floor into one pour).
Soffit » The visible underside of a structural member of a building, including staircases, cornices, overhangs or eaves.
Stringer » A long, horizontal member that connects uprights in a frame or supports a floor; also one of the enclosed sides of a run of stairs supporting the treads and risers.
Studs » Vertical members (usually two-by-fours or two-by-sixes) to which horizontal pieces (plates) are nailed to frame walls.
Truss » A grouping of structural members, typically triangular, to form a rigid framework to span between load-bearing walls for supporting a roof.
Wall Sheathing » The first layer of exterior wall covering, usually sheets of plywood, gypsum board, or other material, nailed to the outside face of studs as a base for exterior siding.